Thyroid Diseases in brief…. part 1. 

#Hyperthyroidism #Grave’sdisease 

Thyroid Diseases mainly consist :

1. Hyperthyroidism

2. Hypothyroidism

3. Thyroiditis

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism is the syndrome resulting from excess of thyroid hormones. The term Hyperthyroidism indicates thyroid gland overactivity resulting in thyrotoxicosis, but thyrotoxicosis can occur without hyperthyroidism when stored hormone is released from a damaged thyroid or when excess thyroid hormone is taken.

Common Causes of thyrotoxicosis – 

1. Grave’s disease – Autoimmune disorder in which thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin  (TSI) binds to & stimulate thyroid stimulating hormone  (TSH) receptor on thyroid cell membrane resulting in excessive synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone.

2. Toxic adenoma – monoclonal autonomously secreting benign thyroid tumor

3. Toxic multi-nodular goiter – multiple  monoclonal autonomously secreting benign thyroid tumor

4. Exogenous thyroid hormone – excess exogenous thyroid hormone

Clinical features:

Thyrotoxicosis

Symptoms – weight loss,  increased appetite,  heat intolerance & sweating,  fatigue & weakness,  hyperactivity, irritability, dysphoria, insomnia,  depression, diarrhoea,  polyuria,periodic paralysis

Signs – tremor, hyper-reflexia, warm moist heat, hairloss, muscle weakness,  cardiac failure

Diagnosis done by – 

1. Serum T3 ,T4

2. Thyroid radioiodine uptake

3. Thyroid scan

4. Serum thyroperoxidase (TPO)

Management: of Grave’s disease –

1. Antithyroid drugs

2. Radioactive iodine

3. Subtotal thyroidectomy.

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